Approaches to TA
approaches to TA which together form the majority of theories and models used
in TA Psychotherapy and Counselling.
The Classical School
This is the earliest view of
TA as developed by Eric Berne and his immediate associates such as Steiner,
Karpman, Ernst & English. Key TA concepts such as egos states, ego state
contamination & exclusion, games, life script and contracting were all established
by this pioneering group.
In this approach to TA
psychotherapy, the therapeutic relationship is valued as a way for our client to
have new and satisfying experiences which can be integrated as part of
themselves. The script system (or racket system) is a key concept as are
attunement, relational needs and interpersonal contact. Key figures in the
development of integrative TA were Erskine, Trautmann & Moursund.
Since the early 1990’s TA
theories which consider the impact and analysis of subconscious processes in
the therapy have developed alongside modern psychoanalytic ideas. These TA theories
include a model of child development which details the influence of the
earliest interactions between infant and caregivers. Key names; Cornell,
Hargaden, Sills, Stark & Novellino.
The Redecision School
Bob & Mary Golding took
ideas from Gestalt Therapy and integrated them into core TA theory. Their key
concepts were early decision & redecision, injunctions and impasse theory.
The Cathexis School
Some key TA theories
developed out of work done by the Schiff’s on the area of developmental
deficits. These are the powerful ideas of symbiosis, redefining, passivity, discounting